API Reference

Corpus Data

read_chat(path[, match, exclude, encoding])

Read Cantonese CHAT data files.

hkcancor()

Create a corpus object for the Hong Kong Cantonese Corpus.

CHATReader()

A reader for Cantonese CHAT corpus files.

CHATReader.search(*[, onset, nucleus, coda, …])

Search the data for the given criteria.

Jyutping Romanization

characters_to_jyutping(chars)

Convert Cantonese characters into Jyutping romanization.

parse_jyutping(jp_str)

Parse Jyutping romanization into onset, nucleus, code, and tone.

jyutping_to_yale(jp_str[, as_list])

Convert Jyutping romanization into Yale romanization.

jyutping_to_tipa(jp_str)

Convert Jyutping romanization into LaTeX TIPA.

Natural Language Processing

stop_words([add, remove])

Return Cantonese stop words.

segment(unsegmented[, cls])

Segment the unsegmented input.

word_segmentation.Segmenter(*[, …])

A customizable word segmentation model.

pos_tag(words[, tagset])

Tag the words for their parts of speech.

pos_tagging.hkcancor_to_ud([tag])

Map a part-of-speech tag from HKCanCor to Universal Dependencies.

CHATReader

class pycantonese.CHATReader[source]

A reader for Cantonese CHAT corpus files.

Note

Some of the methods are inherited from the parent class Reader for language acquisition, which may or may not be applicable to your use case.

Methods

ages([participant, months])

Return the ages of the given participant in the data.

append(reader)

Append data from another reader.

append_left(reader)

Left-append data from another reader.

characters([participants, exclude, …])

Return the data in individual Chinese characters.

clear()

Remove all data from this reader.

dates_of_recording([by_files])

Return the dates of recording.

extend(readers)

Extend data from other readers.

extend_left(readers)

Left-extend data from other readers.

file_paths()

Return the file paths.

filter([match, exclude])

Return a new reader filtered by file paths.

from_dir(path[, match, exclude, extension, …])

Instantiate a reader from a local directory with CHAT data files.

from_files(paths[, match, exclude, …])

Instantiate a reader from local CHAT data files.

from_strs(strs[, ids, parallel])

Instantiate a reader from in-memory CHAT data strings.

from_zip(path[, match, exclude, extension, …])

Instantiate a reader from a local or remote ZIP file.

headers()

Return the headers.

ipsyn()

(Not implemented - the upstream ipsyn method works for English only.)

jyutping([participants, exclude, …])

Return the data in Jyutping romanization.

languages([by_files])

Return the languages in the data.

mlu([participant])

Return the mean lengths of utterance (MLU).

mlum([participant])

Return the mean lengths of utterance by morphemes.

mluw([participant])

Return the mean lengths of utterance by words.

n_files()

Return the number of files.

participants([by_files])

Return the participants (e.g., CHI, MOT).

pop()

Drop the last data file from the reader and return it as a reader.

pop_left()

Drop the first data file from the reader and return it as a reader.

search(*[, onset, nucleus, coda, tone, …])

Search the data for the given criteria.

sents([participants, exclude, by_files])

Return the sents.

tagged_sents([participants, exclude, by_files])

Return the tagged sents.

tagged_words([participants, exclude, by_files])

Return the tagged words.

tokens([participants, exclude, …])

Return the tokens.

ttr([keep_case, participant])

Return the type-token ratios (TTR).

utterances([participants, exclude, by_files])

Return the utterances.

word_frequencies([keep_case, participants, …])

Return word frequencies.

word_ngrams(n[, keep_case, participants, …])

Return word ngrams.

words([participants, exclude, …])

Return the words.

character_sents

jyutping_sents

jyutpings

ages(participant='CHI', months=False) → Union[List[Tuple[int, int, int]], List[float]]

Return the ages of the given participant in the data.

Parameters
participantstr, optional

Participant of interest, which defaults to the typical use case of "CHI" for the target child.

monthsbool, optional

If False (the default), age is represented as a tuple of (years, months, days), e.g., “1;06.00” in CHAT becomes (1, 6, 0). If True, age is a float for the number of months, e.g., “1;06.00” in CHAT becomes 18.0 for 18 months.

Returns
List[Tuple[int, int, int]] if months is False, otherwise List[float]
append(reader: pylangacq.chat.Reader)None

Append data from another reader.

New data is appended as-is with no filtering of any sort, even for files whose file paths duplicate those already in the current reader.

Parameters
readerReader

A reader from which to append data

append_left(reader: pylangacq.chat.Reader)None

Left-append data from another reader.

New data is appended as-is with no filtering of any sort, even for files whose file paths duplicate those already in the current reader.

Parameters
readerReader

A reader from which to left-append data

characters(participants=None, exclude=None, by_utterances=False, by_files=False) → Union[List[str], List[List[str]], List[List[List[str]]]][source]

Return the data in individual Chinese characters.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_utterancesbool, optional

If True, the resulting objects are wrapped as a list at the utterance level. If False (the default), such utterance-level list structure does not exist.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[List[List[str]]] if both by_utterances and by_files are True
List[List[str]] if by_utterances is True and by_files is False
List[List[str]] if by_utterances is False and by_files is True
List[str] if both by_utterances and by_files are False
clear()None

Remove all data from this reader.

dates_of_recording(by_files=False) → Union[Set[datetime.date], List[Set[datetime.date]]]

Return the dates of recording.

Parameters
by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
Set[datetime.date] if by_files is False,
otherwise List[Set[datetime.date]]]
extend(readers: Iterable[pylangacq.chat.Reader])None

Extend data from other readers.

New data is appended as-is with no filtering of any sort, even for files whose file paths duplicate those already in the current reader.

Parameters
readersIterable[Reader]

Readers from which to extend data

extend_left(readers: Iterable[pylangacq.chat.Reader])None

Left-extend data from other readers.

New data is appended as-is with no filtering of any sort, even for files whose file paths duplicate those already in the current reader.

Parameters
readersIterable[Reader]

Readers from which to extend data

file_paths() → List[str]

Return the file paths.

If the data comes from in-memory strings, then the “file paths” are arbitrary UUID random strings.

Returns
List[str]
filter(match: str = None, exclude: str = None) → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Return a new reader filtered by file paths.

Parameters
matchstr, optional

If provided, only the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are read and parsed. For example, to work with the American English dataset Brown (containing data for the children Adam, Eve, and Sarah), you can pass in "Eve" here to only handle the data for Eve, since the unzipped Brown data from CHILDES has a directory structure of Brown/Eve/xxx.cha for Eve’s data. If this parameter is not specified or None is passed in (the default), such file path filtering does not apply.

excludestr, optional

If provided, the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are excluded for reading and parsing.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
Raises
TypeError

If neither match nor exclude is specified.

classmethod from_dir(path: str, match: str = None, exclude: str = None, extension: str = '.cha', encoding: str = 'utf-8', parallel: bool = True) → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Instantiate a reader from a local directory with CHAT data files.

Parameters
pathstr

Local directory that contains CHAT data files. Files are searched for recursively under this directory, and those that satisfy match and extension are parsed and handled by the reader.

matchstr, optional

If provided, only the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are read and parsed. For example, to work with the American English dataset Brown (containing data for the children Adam, Eve, and Sarah), you can pass in "Eve" here to only handle the data for Eve, since the unzipped Brown data from CHILDES has a directory structure of Brown/Eve/xxx.cha for Eve’s data. If this parameter is not specified or None is passed in (the default), such file path filtering does not apply.

excludestr, optional

If provided, the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are excluded for reading and parsing.

encodingstr, optional

Text encoding to parse the CHAT data. The default value is "utf-8" for Unicode UTF-8.

extensionstr, optional

File extension for CHAT data files. The default value is ".cha".

parallelbool, optional

If True (the default), CHAT reading and parsing is parallelized for speed-up, because in most cases multiple CHAT data files and/or strings are being handled. Under certain circumstances (e.g., your application is already parallelized and further parallelization from within PyLangAcq might be undesirable), you may like to consider setting this parameter to False.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
classmethod from_files(paths: List[str], match: str = None, exclude: str = None, encoding: str = 'utf-8', parallel: bool = True) → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Instantiate a reader from local CHAT data files.

Parameters
pathsList[str]

List of local file paths of the CHAT data. The ordering of the paths determines that of the parsed CHAT data in the resulting reader.

matchstr, optional

If provided, only the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are read and parsed. For example, to work with the American English dataset Brown (containing data for the children Adam, Eve, and Sarah), you can pass in "Eve" here to only handle the data for Eve, since the unzipped Brown data from CHILDES has a directory structure of Brown/Eve/xxx.cha for Eve’s data. If this parameter is not specified or None is passed in (the default), such file path filtering does not apply.

excludestr, optional

If provided, the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are excluded for reading and parsing.

encodingstr, optional

Text encoding to parse the CHAT data. The default value is "utf-8" for Unicode UTF-8.

parallelbool, optional

If True (the default), CHAT reading and parsing is parallelized for speed-up, because in most cases multiple CHAT data files and/or strings are being handled. Under certain circumstances (e.g., your application is already parallelized and further parallelization from within PyLangAcq might be undesirable), you may like to consider setting this parameter to False.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
classmethod from_strs(strs: List[str], ids: List[str] = None, parallel: bool = True) → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Instantiate a reader from in-memory CHAT data strings.

Parameters
strsList[str]

List of CHAT data strings. The ordering of the strings determines that of the parsed CHAT data in the resulting reader.

idsList[str], optional

List of identifiers. If not provided, UUID random strings are used. When file paths are referred to in other parts of this package, they mean these identifiers if you have instantiated the reader by this method.

parallelbool, optional

If True (the default), CHAT reading and parsing is parallelized for speed-up, because in most cases multiple CHAT data files and/or strings are being handled. Under certain circumstances (e.g., your application is already parallelized and further parallelization from within PyLangAcq might be undesirable), you may like to consider setting this parameter to False.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
classmethod from_zip(path: str, match: str = None, exclude: str = None, extension: str = '.cha', allow_remote: bool = True, encoding: str = 'utf-8', parallel: bool = True) → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Instantiate a reader from a local or remote ZIP file.

Parameters
pathstr

Either a local file path or a URL (one that begins with "https://" or "http://") for a ZIP file containing CHAT data files. For instance, you can provide either a local path to a ZIP file downloaded from CHILDES, or simply a URL such as "https://childes.talkbank.org/data/Eng-NA/Brown.zip".

matchstr, optional

If provided, only the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are read and parsed. For example, to work with the American English dataset Brown (containing data for the children Adam, Eve, and Sarah), you can pass in "Eve" here to only handle the data for Eve, since the unzipped Brown data from CHILDES has a directory structure of Brown/Eve/xxx.cha for Eve’s data. If this parameter is not specified or None is passed in (the default), such file path filtering does not apply.

excludestr, optional

If provided, the file paths that match this string (by regular expression matching) are excluded for reading and parsing.

allow_remotebool, optional

If True (the default), and if the data source looks like a URL, downloading the data from the internet will be attempted.

encodingstr, optional

Text encoding to parse the CHAT data. The default value is "utf-8" for Unicode UTF-8.

extensionstr, optional

File extension for CHAT data files. The default value is ".cha".

parallelbool, optional

If True (the default), CHAT reading and parsing is parallelized for speed-up, because in most cases multiple CHAT data files and/or strings are being handled. Under certain circumstances (e.g., your application is already parallelized and further parallelization from within PyLangAcq might be undesirable), you may like to consider setting this parameter to False.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
headers() → List[Dict]

Return the headers.

Returns
List[Dict]
ipsyn()[source]

(Not implemented - the upstream ipsyn method works for English only.)

jyutping(participants=None, exclude=None, by_utterances=False, by_files=False) → Union[List[str], List[List[str]], List[List[List[str]]]][source]

Return the data in Jyutping romanization.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_utterancesbool, optional

If True, the resulting objects are wrapped as a list at the utterance level. If False (the default), such utterance-level list structure does not exist.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[List[List[str]]] if both by_utterances and by_files are True
List[List[str]] if by_utterances is True and by_files is False
List[List[str]] if by_utterances is False and by_files is True
List[str] if both by_utterances and by_files are False
languages(by_files=False) → Union[Set[str], List[List[str]]]

Return the languages in the data.

Parameters
by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
Set[str] if by_files is False, otherwise List[List[str]]

When by_files is True, the ordering of languages given by the list indicates language dominance. Such ordering would not make sense when by_files is False, in which case the returned object is a set instead of a list.

mlu(participant='CHI') → List[float]

Return the mean lengths of utterance (MLU).

This method is equivalent to mlum().

Parameters
participantstr, optional

Participant of interest, which defaults to the typical use case of "CHI" for the target child.

Returns
List[float]
mlum(participant='CHI') → List[float]

Return the mean lengths of utterance by morphemes.

Parameters
participantstr, optional

Participant of interest, which defaults to the typical use case of "CHI" for the target child.

Returns
List[float]
mluw(participant='CHI') → List[float]

Return the mean lengths of utterance by words.

Parameters
participantstr, optional

Participant of interest, which defaults to the typical use case of "CHI" for the target child.

Returns
List[float]
n_files()int

Return the number of files.

participants(by_files=False) → Union[Set[str], List[Set[str]]]

Return the participants (e.g., CHI, MOT).

Parameters
by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
Set[str] if by_files is False, otherwise List[Set[str]]
pop() → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Drop the last data file from the reader and return it as a reader.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
pop_left() → pylangacq.chat.Reader

Drop the first data file from the reader and return it as a reader.

Returns
pylangacq.Reader
search(*, onset=None, nucleus=None, coda=None, tone=None, initial=None, final=None, jyutping=None, character=None, pos=None, word_range=0, 0, utterance_range=0, 0, sent_range=0, 0, by_tokens=True, by_utterances=False, tagged=None, sents=None, participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False)[source]

Search the data for the given criteria.

For examples, please see https://pycantonese.org/searches.html.

Parameters
onsetstr, optional

Onset to search for. A regex is supported.

nucleusstr, optional

Nucleus to search for. A regex is supported.

codastr, optional

Coda to search for. A regex is supported.

tonestr, optional

Tone to search for. A regex is supported.

initialstr, optional

Initial to search for. A regex is supported. An initial, a term more prevalent in traditional Chinese phonology, is the equivalent of an onset.

finalstr, optional

Final to search for. A final, a term more prevalent in traditional Chinese phonology, is the equivalent of a nucleus plus a coda.

jyutpingstr, optional

Jyutping romanization of one Cantonese character to search for. If the romanization contains more than one character, a ValueError is raised.

characterstr, optional

One or more Cantonese characters (within a segmented word) to search for.

posstr, optional

A part-of-speech tag to search for. A regex is supported.

word_rangetuple[int, int], optional

Span of words to the left and right of a matching word to include in the output. The default is (0, 0) to disable a range. If sent_range is used, word_range is ignored.

utterance_rangeTuple[int, int], optional

Span of utterances before and after an utterance containing a matching word to include in the output. If set to (0, 0) (the default), no utterance range output is generated. If utterance_range is used, word_range is ignored.

sent_rangeTuple[int, int], optional

[Deprecated; please use utterance_range instead]

by_tokensbool, optional

If True (the default), words in the output are in the token form (i.e., with Jyutping and part-of-speech tags). Otherwise just words as text strings are returned.

by_utterancesbool, optional

If True (default is False), utterances containing matching words are returned. Otherwise, only matching words are returned.

taggedbool, optional

[Deprecated; please use by_tokens instead]

sentsbool, optional

[Deprecated; please use by_utterances instead]

participantsstr or iterable[str], optional

One or more participants to include in the search. If unspecified, all participants are included.

excludestr or iterable[str], optional

One or more participants to exclude in the search. If unspecified, no participants are excluded.

by_filesbool, optional

If True (default: False), return data organized by the individual file paths.

Returns
list
sents(participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False) → Union[List[List[str]], List[List[List[str]]]]

Return the sents.

Deprecated since version 0.13.0: Please use words() with by_utterances=True instead.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[List[str]] if by_files is False, otherwise List[List[List[str]]]
tagged_sents(participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False) → Union[List[List[pylangacq.objects.Token]], List[List[List[pylangacq.objects.Token]]]]

Return the tagged sents.

Deprecated since version 0.13.0: Please use tokens() with by_utterances=True instead.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[List[Token]] if by_files is False,
otherwise List[List[List[Token]]]
tagged_words(participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False) → Union[List[pylangacq.objects.Token], List[List[pylangacq.objects.Token]]]

Return the tagged words.

Deprecated since version 0.13.0: Please use tokens() with by_utterances=False instead.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[Token] if by_files is False, otherwise List[List[Token]]
tokens(participants=None, exclude=None, by_utterances=False, by_files=False) → Union[List[pylangacq.objects.Token], List[List[pylangacq.objects.Token]], List[List[List[pylangacq.objects.Token]]]]

Return the tokens.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_utterancesbool, optional

If True, the resulting objects are wrapped as a list at the utterance level. If False (the default), such utterance-level list structure does not exist.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[List[List[Token]]] if both by_utterances and by_files are True
List[List[Token]] if by_utterances is True and by_files is False
List[List[Token]] if by_utterances is False and by_files is True
List[Token] if both by_utterances and by_files are False
ttr(keep_case=True, participant='CHI') → List[float]

Return the type-token ratios (TTR).

Parameters
keep_casebool, optional

If True (the default), case distinctions are kept, e.g., word tokens like “the” and “The” are treated as distinct. If False, all word tokens are forced to be in lowercase as a preprocessing step. CHAT data from CHILDES intentionally does not follow the orthographic convention of capitalizing the first letter of a sentence in the transcriptions (as would have been done in many European languages), and so leaving keep_case as True is appropriate in most cases.

participantstr, optional

Participant of interest, which defaults to the typical use case of "CHI" for the target child.

Returns
List[float]
utterances(participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False) → Union[List[pylangacq.objects.Utterance], List[List[pylangacq.objects.Utterance]]]

Return the utterances.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[Utterance] if by_files is False, otherwise List[List[Utterance]]
word_frequencies(keep_case=True, participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False) → Union[collections.Counter, List[collections.Counter]]

Return word frequencies.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

keep_casebool, optional

If True (the default), case distinctions are kept, e.g., word tokens like “the” and “The” are treated as distinct. If False, all word tokens are forced to be in lowercase as a preprocessing step. CHAT data from CHILDES intentionally does not follow the orthographic convention of capitalizing the first letter of a sentence in the transcriptions (as would have been done in many European languages), and so leaving keep_case as True is appropriate in most cases.

Returns
collections.Counter if by_files is False,
otherwise List[collections.Counter]
word_ngrams(n, keep_case=True, participants=None, exclude=None, by_files=False) → Union[collections.Counter, List[collections.Counter]]

Return word ngrams.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

keep_casebool, optional

If True (the default), case distinctions are kept, e.g., word tokens like “the” and “The” are treated as distinct. If False, all word tokens are forced to be in lowercase as a preprocessing step. CHAT data from CHILDES intentionally does not follow the orthographic convention of capitalizing the first letter of a sentence in the transcriptions (as would have been done in many European languages), and so leaving keep_case as True is appropriate in most cases.

Returns
collections.Counter if by_files is False,
otherwise List[collections.Counter]
words(participants=None, exclude=None, by_utterances=False, by_files=False) → Union[List[str], List[List[str]], List[List[List[str]]]]

Return the words.

Parameters
participantsstr or iterable of str, optional

Participants of interest. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for studying child speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are included. If you pass in None (the default), all participants are included. This parameter cannot be used together with exclude.

excludestr or iterable of str, optional

Participants to exclude. You may pass in a string (e.g., "CHI" for child-directed speech) or an iterable of strings (e.g., {"MOT", "INV"}). Only the specified participants are excluded. If you pass in None (the default), no participants are excluded. This parameter cannot be used together with participants.

by_utterancesbool, optional

If True, the resulting objects are wrapped as a list at the utterance level. If False (the default), such utterance-level list structure does not exist.

by_filesbool, optional

If True, return a list X of results, where len(X) is the number of files in the Reader object, and each element in X is the result for one file; the ordering of X corresponds to that of the file paths from file_paths(). If False (the default), return the result that collapses the file distinction just described for when by_files is True.

Returns
List[List[List[str]]] if both by_utterances and by_files are True
List[List[str]] if by_utterances is True and by_files is False
List[List[str]] if by_utterances is False and by_files is True
List[str] if both by_utterances and by_files are False

Token

class pycantonese.corpus.Token(word: str, pos: Optional[str], jyutping: Optional[str], mor: Optional[str], gra: Optional[pylangacq.objects.Gra])[source]

Token with attributes as parsed from a CHAT utterance.

Attributes
wordstr

Word form of the token

posstr

Part-of-speech tag

jyutpingstr

Jyutping romanization

morstr

Morphological information

graGra

Grammatical relation

Jyutping

class pycantonese.jyutping.Jyutping(onset: str, nucleus: str, coda: str, tone: str)[source]

Jyutping representation of a Chinese/Cantonese character.

Attributes
onsetstr

Onset

nucleusstr

Nucleus

codastr

Coda

tonestr

Tone

__str__()[source]

Combine onset + nucleus + coda + tone.

property final

Return the final (= nucleus + coda).